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The Novikov self-consistency principle, also known as the Novikov self-consistency conjecture and Larry Niven's law of conservation of history, is a principle developed by Russian physicist Igor Dmitriyevich Novikov in the mid-1980s. Novikov intended it to solve the problem of paradoxes in time travel, which is theoretically permitted in certain solutions of general relativity that contain what are known as closed timelike curves.

In mathematics, a presentation is one method of specifying a group. A presentation of a group G comprises a set S of generators—so that every element of the group can be written as a product of powers of some of these generators—and a set R of relations among those generators.

This page concerns mathematician Sergei Novikov's topology conjecture. For astrophysicist Igor Novikov's conjecture regarding time travel, see Novikov self-consistency principle.The Novikov conjecture is one of the most important unsolved problems in topology.

Novikov, Novikoff or Novikova (feminine) is one of the most common Russian surnames. Derived from novik - a teenager on military service who comes from a noble, boyar or cossack family in Russia of 16th-18th centuries.

In mathematics, given an additive subgroup Γ ⊂ R {\displaystyle \Gamma \subset \mathbb {R} } , the Novikov ring Nov {\displaystyle \operatorname {Nov} (\Gamma )} of Γ {\displaystyle \Gamma } is the subring of Z [ [ Γ ] ] {\displaystyle \mathbb {Z} [\![\Gamma ]\!]} consisting of formal sums ∑ n γ i t γ i {\displaystyle \sum n_{\gamma _{i}}t^{\gamma _{i}}} such that γ 1 > γ 2 > ⋯ {\displaystyle \gamma _{1}>\gamma _{2}>\cdots } and γ i → − ∞ {\displaystyle \gamma _{i}\to -\infty } . The notion was introduced by S. P. Novikov in the papers that initiated the generalization of Morse theory using a closed one-form instead of a function.

In probability theory, Novikov's condition is the sufficient condition for a stochastic process which takes the form of the Radon–Nikodym derivative in Girsanov's theorem to be a martingale. If satisfied together with other conditions, Girsanov's theorem may be applied to a Brownian motion stochastic process to change from the original measure to the new measure defined by the Radon–Nikodym derivative.

In mathematics, Novikov's compact leaf theorem, named after Sergei Novikov, states that A codimension-one foliation of a compact 3-manifold whose universal covering space is not contractible must have a compact leaf.

In mathematics, the Novikov–Veselov equation is a natural (2+1)-dimensional analogue of the Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation. Unlike another (2+1)-dimensional analogue of KdV, the Kadomtsev–Petviashvili equation, it is integrable via the inverse scattering transform for the 2-dimensional stationary Schrödinger equation.

In mathematics, a Novikov–Shubin invariant. introduced by Sergei Novikov and Mikhail Shubin , is an invariant of a compact Riemannian manifold related to the spectrum of the Laplace operator acting on square-integrable differential forms on its universal cover.

Novikovo is a rural locality (a selo) in Starooskolsky District, Belgorod Oblast, Russia. The population was 51 as of 2010.

Madalyn Murray O'Hair was an American activist supporting atheism and separation of church and state. In 1963 she founded American Atheists and served as its president until 1986, after which her son Jon Garth Murray succeeded her.

Madelyne "Maddie" Pryor is a fictional supervillain appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics, primarily featured off-and-on as an antagonist of the X-Men. Originally the love interest and first wife of X-Men leader Cyclops , she became a long-standing member of the X-Men supporting cast, until a series of traumas—being abandoned by her husband, losing her infant son, and discovering that she was a clone of Jean Grey—eventually led to her being manipulated into being a supervillain.

Madelyn Lee Payne Dunham was the American maternal grandmother of Barack Obama, the 44th President of the United States. She and her husband Stanley Armour Dunham raised Obama from age ten in their Honolulu apartment, where on November 2, 2008, she died two days before her grandson was elected President.